Camera History
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1839
Daguerrotype cameras 
J.N.Niépce,
J.M.Daguerre,
W.F.H. Talbot
Giroux, Paris 
produced the first
cameras in series - they had a weight of 50 kg each and cost 400 Francs.
Klick here for the enlarged picture!

 June 24, 1839 Hippolyte Bayard showed his pictures in an exposition - the first one worldwide!

~ 1840
Daguerrotype 
sliding box cameras

1840 Joseph Petzval (1807-1891) computes an achromatic lens with an aperture of 1:3,6.
The Petzval lens is mainly used for portraits.

1841
all metal camera
P.W.F.Voigtländer,Wien 
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Voigtländer 
Metall-Portraitkamera
with four element
Petzval lens 1:3,7
1841 Wien 
Find the History of Voigtländer here!

1843 W.F.H. Talbot claims patent for an enlarging lens
around 1845: N.P.Lerebours, Paris, uses turnable lenses with three different apertures
1850: the first camera magazine appears in New York: Daguerrian Journal
1850: Marcus Sparling
(England) constructs a field camera with ten wooden frames in a magazine

~1850
cameras with bellows 
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Voigtländer 
Reisekamera Typ A
(around 1900)
Find the History of Voigtländer here! 
1851
Stereo cameras 
Jules Dubosq, London

1851 Ignazio Porro takes pictures with a "telephoto" lens and constructs a lens with variable apertures
1853 J.M.Levy constructs a "moment" shutter
1853 Thomas Ottewil constructs a folding camera
1856 Lanet de Limenci introduces an extinction meter in the form of a camera
1857 C.G.Kinnear constructs a folding camera with konical bellows
1859 Aimé Lausedat constructs a topographical camera
1860 J.H.Dallmeyer constructs the achromatic triplet lens
1860 Harrison constructs the probably first wide angle lens with an angle of 73 degrees

1861
Single reflex camera 
Thomas Sutton, England 
Hesekiel, Berlin
Spiegelreflexkamera
(1895)

1862 William England constructs a focal plane shutter
1862 W.Thompson invents the 'revolver' camera

 1865  
flash powder 
(John Trail Taylor, England)
 The complete
flash history
1899 flash lamp (Eastman Co. USA)
around 1907 flash bulbs (Cenei,Germany)
around 1928 'Blitzkolben'
1935 synchronized cameras (Ihagee,Germany)
1938 first synchronized leaf shutter (Gauthier,Germany)

1865 C.A. Steinheil constructs a periscope with an aperture of 75 mm
1865 H.A. Steinheil calculates the Aplanat

~1873
cameras for color photography 
L.Ducos du Hauron
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Miethe Kamera
Bermpohl,Berlin, 
Deutschland 
~1904

1875 Werner Siemens constructs selen cells for photometric purposes

~1880
Detective cameras

 

Detective
Thomas Bolas, England

~1880
Hand cameras 
(initally as 'magazine cameras') 
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Simplex Kamera
Dr.Krügener 
Deutschland
1890
1881
Twin lens reflex camera 
(Marion & Co. "Academy") 
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London Stereoscopic 
~1910

1882

shutters

other shutters:

'
Rotationsverschluss' 1885
leaf shutter (Steinheil) 1888

Automat  1901

Goerz Sector 1904
Compound  1904
Koilos  1907
Compur  1912
Compur Rapid  1935

Find the History of VGC-Pronto shutters here!
1882
Miniature cameras 
Adolphe Bertsch,Paris 
"chambre automatique" 
"
Klick here for the enlarged picture!
Kombi
Alfred Kemper
Chicago,USA 
1893
1885
Spy (disguised) cameras 
R.D.Gray, New York "Stirns" 
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Ben Akiba
E.Kronke/A.Lehmann 
Deutschland 
~1903
~1885
Strut camera 
J.Shew  "Eclipse" 
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Ango
C.P.Goerz,Berlin 
~1896
~1885
folding cameras
(produced in larger series)
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The Instantograph
Lancaster & Son 
Birmingham,England 
~1890
1887
book cameras
George Lowdon
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Vega
Vega SA, 
Genf 
Schweiz 
1900

1887 The feet scale can be found on the folding bed of the camera from now on

1888
rollfilm cameras 
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The Kodak
Eastman,Rochester 
USA 
1888
1889
Anastigmat - lens
"Protar", Paul Rudolph
Other lenses:
Cooke 1893
Aldis Anastigmat 1901
Heliar 1902
Tessar 1902
Dagor 1904
Xpres 1914
Aviar 1918

1890 The Single reflex camera gets a folding mirror behind the lens (Watson)

~1890

panorama cameras 
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No.1 Panorama Kodak
Eastman Kodak 
Rochester,USA 
~1900
~1890
'opera cameras' 
Jules Carpentier,  France
Photo Jumelle
Jules Charpentier 
Frankreich 
~1890

1895 George Houghton constructs a camera with vertical and horizontal adjustment of the front plate

1897
folding rollfilm camera 
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Folding Pocket Kodak
Eastman Kodak 
Rochester 
USA 
1897
combined 
rollfilm & plate camera

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No.4 Cartridge Kodak
Eastman Kodak 
Rochester 
USA 
1897

1898 J.Poljakow constructs a camera with automatically controlled speed

1900
snapshot cameras 
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Brownie
Eastman Kodak 
Rochester 
USA 
1900
~1900
'Briefmarkenkamera'
('stamp' camera)
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ICA 
Dresden 
Deutschland 
~1910
~1900
press camera
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Tropenkamera
Ernemann 
Dresden 
Deutschland 
~1925

around 1900 automatic self timer introduced ( Autopose )

1903
vest pocket camera 
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Block notes
Gaumont & Cie 
Paris 
Frankreich 1903

1904 double exposure prevention is introduced (ICA)
1907 Fa.Lumiére supplies Autochrome plates - the commercial start of color photography

1913
35mm cameras
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Ur-Leica 
Oscar Barnack 
Wetzlar
,
Deutschland 
1913

1916 rangefinder coupled with lens(Kodak)
1924 The Ermanox with 1:2 /100 lens brings new dimensions to press photography
1925 the Leica is produced in series

1929
twin lens reflex camera 
Zur grösseren Ansicht bitte hier klicken!
Rolleiflex
Franke&Heidecke 
Braunschweig 
Deutschland 
1929
1933
35mm reflex camera 
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Kine-Exakta
Ihagee 
Dresden 
Deutschland
1938

1932 extinction meter attached to/build in camera (Voigtländer)

1934
spring motor camera
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Robot
Berning
Düsseldorf
Deutschland

1934 first coupled rangefinder camera produced in series (Zeiss Ikon)

1936
miniature camera 8x11mm
Minox
Valsts Electro Techniska
Riga
Russia
1948
instant picture camera
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Polaroid Land Camera 95
Polaroid Corp. 
Cambridge 
USA 
1948
1956
camera with exchangeable film backs
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Adox 300
Adox
Wiesbaden
Deutschland
1959
zoom lens
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Voigtländer-
Zoomar

1959 first camera with programmed automatic exposure (Agfa Optima)

1960
photo camera with
build-in electric motor -drive
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Iloca Electric
Iloca Camerawerke
Hamburg
Deutschland
1963
camera for double film-cartridges
and automatic film speed reading
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Instamatic
Kodak
Rochester
USA
1964
camera with build-in electronic flash
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Vitrona
Voigtländer,Braunschweig
1967
single lens reflex with automatic exposure

 


Zenith D
Krasnogorsk Mechanical Factory "KMZ"
USSR
 

According to Dmitry KOPP ,system administrator,Research & Design Center,
KRASNOGORSKY ZAVOD (KMZ) has also introduced the

Kometa (Comet) -- first camera with fully automatic range finder
(1958, shown 1958 on the EXPO in Brussels, but neverf produced in series),
ZENIT-5 -- first russian SLR with build-in motor drive (1963),
FT-2 (1958) -- first panorama camera to be produced in larger series,
ZENIT-6 first russian SLR with zoom-lens (1964),
ZENIT-16 -- first SLR with hard plastic body(1972)

1977
compact camera with
auto focus system
 
Konica C35AF
Konishiroku
Tokyo
Japan
1981
digital camera
Mavica
Sony
Tokyo
Japan
Sources:
*own research;
*Robert  White: Discovering old cameras, Shire, 1981;
*
Gesellschaft für Photohistorica, Frankfurt
*
Photodeal,Neuss
*G.Ihrke: Zeitafel zur Geschichte der Fotografie, Leipzig 1982
***Thanks to Horst Lohse for all his inputs!

 

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